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Human rights bodies have clarified that extraterritorial human rights obligations (ETOs) apply in situations of armed conflict. ETOs arise whenever a State exercises effective control over a person or territory, or has the ability to infringe upon a person’s human rights. In particular, the degree of control exercised in a given context determines the extent to which the three obligations to respect, protect and fulfil human rights apply. Against the background of three specific scenarios (deprivation of liberty, occupation and other instances of effective control over a territory, and use of force by distance), the analysis concludes that the obligation to respect applies in all circumstances, whereas the obligations to protect and fulfil may apply only when a State exercises effective control over a person or territory, depending on the circumstances. By referring to the Maastricht Principles throughout the analysis, the chapter further examines their actual relevance in respect of extraterritorial military action.
by Vito Todeschini, in The Routledge Handbook on Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations.